Tolkien on language invention

J. R. R. Tolkien’s deep interest in language is evident to his readers and to anyone familiar with the broad facts of his professional life: as well as being a famous and well-regarded author, he was a professor of language and literature, a philologist, a poet, and a translator. He once wrote in a letter that his work – all of it – was “fundamentally linguistic in inspiration”.

Tolkien was also an avid and prolific conlanger: a creator of conlangs, or constructed languages. Though he liked Esperanto, and approved of the idea of a unifying artificial language for Europe for political reasons, his interest in conlangs was primarily creative. It was an artistic urge rather than a practical or commercial consideration.

He placed great stock in the authenticity of the languages he invented. This made for painstaking work, “an art for which life is not long enough”, as he put it. Christopher Tolkien described how his father would proceed

from the ‘bases’ or primitive stems, adding suffix or prefix or forming compounds, deciding (or, as he would have said, ‘finding out’) when the word came into the language, following it through the regular changes in form that it would thus have undergone, and observing the possibilities of formal or semantic influence from other words in the course of its history.

Arika Okrent, in her book In the Land of Invented Languages, writes that for Tolkien, “language creation was an art all its own, enhanced and enriched by the stories”. The book’s last chapter includes a memorable excerpt from Tolkien’s lecture A Secret Vice that shows how strongly language invention affected him – even when it was someone else’s, casually overheard. Here’s the anecdote in full:

I shall never forget a little man – smaller than myself – whose name I have forgotten, revealing himself by accident as a devotee, in a moment of extreme ennui, in a dirty wet marquee filled with trestle tables smelling of stale mutton fat, crowded with (mostly) depressed and wet creatures. We were listening to somebody lecturing on map-reading, or camp-hygiene, or the art of sticking a fellow through without (in defiance of Kipling) bothering who God sent the bill to; rather we were trying to avoid listening, though the Guards’ English, and voice, is penetrating. The man next to me said suddenly in a dreamy voice: ‘Yes, I think I shall express the accusative case by a prefix!’

A memorable remark! Of course by repeating it I have let the cat, so carefully hidden, out of its bag, or at least revealed the whiskers. But we won’t bother about that for a moment. Just consider the splendour of the words! ‘I shall express the accusative case.’ Magnificent! Not ‘it is expressed’, nor even the more shambling ‘it is sometimes expressed’, nor the grim ‘you must learn how it is expressed’. What a pondering of alternatives within one’s choice before the final decision in favour of the daring and unusual prefix, so personal, so attractive; the final solution of some element in a design that had hitherto proved refractory. Here were no base considerations of the ‘practical’, the easiest for the ‘modern mind’, or for the million – only a question of taste, a satisfaction of a personal pleasure, a private sense of fitness.

As he said his words the little man’s smile was full of a great delight, as of a poet or painter seeing suddenly the solution of a hitherto clumsy passage. Yet he proved as close as an oyster. I never gathered any further details of his secret grammar; and military arrangements soon separated us never to meet again (up to now at any rate). But I gathered that this queer creature – ever afterwards a little bashful after inadvertently revealing his secret – cheered and comforted himself in the tedium and squalors of ‘training under canvas’ by composing a language, a personal system and symphony that no else was to study or to hear. Whether he did this in his head (as only the great masters can), or on paper, I never knew. It is incidentally one of the attractions of this hobby that it needs so little apparatus! How far he ever proceeded in his composition, I never heard. Probably he was blown to bits in the very moment of deciding upon some ravishing method of indicating the subjunctive. Wars are not favourable to delicate pleasures.


The unidentified man’s sense of privacy about his hobby was not unusual; neither was his clear delight in resolving a matter of grammatical detail. Tolkien described language invention as “a private enterprise undertaken to give pleasure to myself by giving expression to my personal linguistic ‘aesthetic’ or taste and its fluctuations.”

Just how important it was to Tolkien is something that appears to have fallen on many a deaf ear. “Nobody believes me,” he wrote in a letter to Christopher,

when I say that my long book [The Lord of the Rings] is an attempt to create a world in which a form of language agreeable to my personal aesthetic might seem real. But it is true. An enquirer (among many) asked what the L.R. was all about, and whether it was an allegory. And I said it was an effort to create a situation in which a common greeting would be elen si-‘la lu-‘menn omentielmo [‘A star shines on the hour of our meeting’], and that the phrase long antedated the book.

The languages came first, insisting on existence; the stories came later, and gave them a home.

Namárië, stanza 1, written in Tengwar script

Further reading:

In the Land of Invented Languages is a wonderful book about constructed languages and the people behind them, their dedication, obsession, and extraordinary creativity.

J. R. R. Tolkien, A Secret Vice.”

Resources for Tolkienian Linguistics: An Annotated Guide.

Language Hat continues the discussion about Tolkien and conlanging. He also reviewed Okrent’s book.

From the BBC archives: Tolkien talks about language invention with particular reference to Elvish:

[image source]


14 Responses to Tolkien on language invention

  1. Wow I never realised that there were so many invented languages Stan

  2. John Cowan says:

    Tolkien linguistics, as I know to my cost (I moderated the Elfling list for one of the more difficult 18-month periods of my life), is a field in which the more learned the scholar, the more cranky and difficult they tend to be. You’ve linked to a useful but one-sided resource, so I’ll link to another: Ardalambion.

  3. Stan says:

    Jams: It’s an intensely busy but very niche area. Apart from a link here and there, the only time I’ve written about them before was this post on Na’vi.

    John: I hope that, difficulties aside, it was a worthwhile experience in some ways. Thank you for the website; I linked to one of its pages in par. 3, and will explore further when I can.

  4. John Cowan says:

    It was educational, but so was falling and breaking my toe: it told me to be careful about falling again. Otherwise, not. Still, I was providing a public service, and virtue is its own reward, which is good, because other rewards aren’t very likely in this case.

  5. A says:

    I think, Lewis Carrol was also a conlanger.

  6. Stan says:

    A: Carroll certainly coined a lot of vocabulary, much of it glorious nonsense, but I wouldn’t say he invented languages. It depends, I suppose, on how you define the terms.

  7. […] to an artistic problem, not a linguistic one”; in this respect it is similar to Na’vi and Tolkien’s languages. She writes that Klingon both flouts and follows known linguistic principles, and its real […]

  8. Tolkien says:

    That was a great read. I look forward to reading more of your stuff in future.

  9. Stan says:

    Glad you enjoyed it, Tolkien. You can subscribe to the blog by email or RSS, if you wish.

  10. […] posts on conlangs looked at J.R.R. Tolkien’s “secret vice” of language construction, how Klingon was invented, and the Na’vi language in James Cameron’s […]

  11. […] Tolkien on Language Invention […]

  12. […] to attempt to do the same. (To read more about Tolkien’s language check out this blog post While it is not believed that any author has come close to developing a world of languages as […]

  13. […] of Your Life by Ted Chiang. Much like how Lord of the Rings was a device for J.R.R. Tolkien to hone his linguist chops, it feels like Story of Your Life was inspired by linguistic relativity and a fun thought […]

  14. […] reasons. It’s always a creative act, but artistic expression is not always the main motive, as it was for Tolkien. It may be a political undertaking, as with Esperanto. It can be a pastime, a linguistic or an […]

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