Lewis Carroll and the portmanteau words quiz

If you enjoyed my quiz on nouning and verbing, you might like my new quiz on portmanteau words, now up on the Macmillan Dictionary site. It will test your knowledge of novel portmanteaus such as plogging, smombie, theyby, and zoodles. It’s multiple choice, so you can guess at any strange ones.

Portmanteau words are words that blend two or more others in structure and meaning, like smog (smoke + fog), brunch (breakfast + lunch), and portmonsteau (portmanteau + monster). That last one hasn’t caught on yet. They should be distinguished from compound words like teapot and seawater, which also combine words but don’t blend them.

I like a good portmanteau word, and by browsing Macmillan’s Open Dictionary (which is crowd-sourced but lexicographer-edited – this ain’t Urban Dictionary) I see a lot of shiny new ones soon after they enter circulation. Hence the portmanteau quiz. Let me know how you score.

Now follows a bit on the etymology of portmanteau, for anyone unfamiliar with it.

John Tenniel's illustration of Humpty-Dumpty in 'Through the Looking-Glass'. He is reaching down from the wall for the hand of Alice, who is reaching up.Portmanteau was formed in French by joining porte (porter ‘carry’ in imperative mood) to manteau ‘cloak’. Borrowed into English in the mid-16thC, it originally meant (and can still mean) a bag or case for carrying clothes or other items.

But when Lewis Carroll wrote Through the Looking-Glass, he applied it to words:

‘You seem very clever at explaining words, Sir,’ said Alice. ‘Would you kindly tell me the meaning of the poem called “Jabberwocky”?’

‘Let’s hear it,’ said Humpty Dumpty. ‘I can explain all the poems that were ever invented – and a good many that haven’t been invented just yet.’

This sounded very hopeful, so Alice repeated the first verse:

‘Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;
All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe.

‘That’s enough to begin with,’ Humpty Dumpty interrupted: ‘there are plenty of hard words there. “Brillig” means four o’clock in the afternoon – the time when you begin broiling things for dinner.’

‘That’ll do very well,’ said Alice: ‘and “slithy”?’

‘Well, “slithy” means “lithe and slimy.” “Lithe” is the same as “active.” You see it’s like a portmanteau – there are two meanings packed up into one word.’

‘I see it now,’ Alice remarked thoughtfully . . .

A little later, Humpty Dumpty adds that mimsy ‘is “flimsy and miserable” (there’s another portmanteau for you)’. Carroll, via his anthropomorphic egg, was the first person to use portmanteau in this linguistic sense, and the popularity of his Alice books helped the label to stick – though linguists often call them blends instead.

Most portmanteaus, like other coinages, remain niche or simply disappear. But you never know which ones might catch on. Hangry (hungry + angry) and the related noun hanger entered my working vocabulary and that of several people I know when it did the rounds a few years ago. (The OED’s first citation for hangry, btw, is from 1956.)

Slithy and mimsy never gained much currency, but other Carroll-coined blends, like chortle, have done better. (Side note: a phrase in Carroll’s first Alice book gave this blog its name.) Carroll’s linguistic style was a curious mix of playful and rigorous; for all his inventiveness he could also be prescriptive about English usage. But then he was never one to chillax.


18 Responses to Lewis Carroll and the portmanteau words quiz

  1. Got one wrong, plogging. Who’d a thunk.
    Fun! Did the other quizzes too. Always love a challenge. Thanx!

  2. stuartnz says:

    Great fun quiz, thanks. Plogging and felfie were my failures. All three options in each case very well-crafted :)

  3. ardj says:

    I am sure I would have enjoyed (and been hopelessly depfrused) by the portmanteau quiz. However I cannot find it, either at the link you give ( https://www.macmillandictionary.com/learn/language-quizzes/index.html) ) or by searching (http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/portmanteau-words-quiz )

    Am now even more confrustriled

  4. Colin McCarthy says:

    That was fun! I got 60%. I knew a couple and frankly guessed the answers to the rest of the Portmantiz .

  5. D.T. Nova says:

    Got 8 out of 10, but technically the right answer wasn’t a choice for “plogging” since it’s actually “picking + litter + jogging”.

    “Slithy” is an unusual one, isn’t it? How many other portmanteaus are there where the beginning and end come from the same word?

    • Stan Carey says:

      That’s true about plogging: the middle word should also appear among the constituent words. I’ll see if it can be updated.

      And that’s a good question. I think I’ve seen others like this, but infrequently, and I can’t think of one offhand.

  6. Deb Kean says:

    I enjoyed the quiz and got 70%… such fun! I shared it on Facebook too…

  7. Michael Vnuk says:

    Got 10/10, but I was not familiar with about half of them, so I was very lucky. However, in all 10 questions, the three options provided all had an air of possibility about them, eg for ‘lunner’. When I didn’t know for certain, I puzzled for a while. It was a surprise when all turned out to be correct.

    • Stan Carey says:

      Impressive result! I’m glad to hear the alternative answers all had that elusive ‘air of possibility’, but delighted that you worked them all out.

  8. 9 out of 10, with Plogging the mistake. Most of those correct were guesses, however. Great fun.

  9. Ahoy, matey. I got 80%, pretty good for a guesser. Thar be only a couple that I be sure about aforehand. I be loving me a good portmanteau word. It be saying so much more than the individual words theyselves.

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